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TRIP Report: Maryland’s Heavily Traveled Transportation System Will Need Additional Investment To Ease Congestion & Improve Mobility

NEW REPORT IDENTIFIES STATE’S MOST CONGESTED HIGHWAYS AND ARTERIAL ROADWAYS & IDENTIFIES TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS NEEDED TO IMPROVE ACCESS

 Maryland’s quality of life and economic development is being hampered by high levels of traffic congestion and reduced accessibility, but is benefitting from a statewide program to improve accessibility and Governor Hogan has proposed a comprehensive set of transportation improvements designed to  improve mobility, according to a new report released by TRIP, a Washington, DC based national transportation research nonprofit.

According to the TRIP report, Keeping Maryland Mobile: Accomplishments and Challenges in Improving Accessibility in Maryland to Support Quality of Life and a Strong Economy,”the state’s roads carry the highest traffic volume in the nation and commute lengths are the second longest in the U.S. Traffic congestion costs the state’s residents and businesses billions of dollars each year and severely constrains the number of jobs accessible to residents. The Maryland Department of Transportation State Highway Administration (MDOT SHA) is implementing a plan to relieve congestion and enhance reliability, and Governor Hogan has recommended a $17.8 billion multimodal congestion relief plan designed to accommodate growth and improve economic development.

Maryland’s major urban highways and roads carried the highest average daily traffic per lane mile in the nation in 2017. The average daily commute for the state’s residents was 32.7 minutes, the second longest average commute in the nation, behind only New York at 33 minutes. The average driver in the Washington, DC area loses 87 hours to congestion each year at an annual cost of $2,007 per driver in lost time and wasted fuel. In the Baltimore area, the average driver loses 50 hours to congestion annually at a cost of $1,220 annually in lost time and wasted fuel. Congestion on the state’s highways, freeways, and major arterial roads costs the public $3.4 billion annually in the value of lost time and wasted fuel.

Traffic congestion also impacts the number of jobs available to residents. in 2017, of the approximately 1.9 million jobs accessible within a one-hour drive to residents of the Baltimore metro area, only 30 percent are accessible within a 30-minute drive. And, of the approximately 2.6 million jobs accessible within a one-hour drive to residents of the Washington, DC metro area, only 24 percent are accessible within a 30-minute drive. In 2017, the number of jobs accessible within a 40-minute drive in the Baltimore and Washington, DC metro areas during peak commuting hours was reduced by 38 and 47 percent, respectively, as a result of traffic congestion.

The TRIP report also identified the most congested portions of Maryland highways and arterial (non-freeway) roadways during weekday AM and PM peak travel hours. The chart below details the ten most congested highways and arterial roadways during peak AM and PM travel hours. A full list of the most congested segments is included in the report.

“The TRIP report outlines exactly why the Traffic Relief Plan is critical to address the congestion Marylanders deal with every day,” said MDOT Secretary Pete K. Rahn.

Freight shipments in Maryland, which are primarily carried by trucks, are expected to increase significantly through 2040 due to population and economic growth, and changes in business, retail, and consumer models, which rely on a faster and more responsive supply chain. The efficiency of freight movement in Maryland is threatened by traffic congestion, which reduces the reliability of goods movement to and from destinations in the state and through the state. The chart below ranks the five highway segments in Maryland that provide the worst travel reliability for commercial trucks as a result of traffic congestion. A full list is included in the report.

MDOT SHA congestion relief programs – which include an incident management program, additional park and ride spaces, HOV lanes, new sidewalks, and bike lanes, and improvements to at-grade rail crossings and major intersections – were estimated in 2016 to save approximately $1.6 billion in reduced delays, fuel consumption and emissions. In addition to the efforts already underway, Governor Hogan has recommended a $17.8 billion multimodal congestion relief plan that includes the following: widening approximately 70 miles of Interstates via funding provided through a public-private partnership, completion of the Purple Line from the Bethesda Metro Station to the New Carrollton Metro Station, and a statewide expansion of the smart traffic signal program.

“It is critical that Maryland has a robust transportation plan capable of improving mobility and accessibility, which is vital to the state’s economic health and quality of life,” said Will Wilkins, TRIP’s executive director. “While recent state efforts to ease congestion and improve the reliability of Maryland’s transportation system have been helpful, more work still needs to be done. Congress can help by fixing the federal Highway Trust Fund and passing major infrastructure legislation.”

Keeping Maryland Mobile:

Accomplishments and Challenges in Improving Accessibility in Maryland to Support Quality of Life and a Strong Economy

Executive Summary

Accessibility is a critical factor in a state’s quality of life and economic competitiveness. The ability of people and businesses using multiple transportation modes to access employment, customers, commerce, recreation, education and healthcare in a timely fashion is critical for the development of a region and a state. Maryland’s quality of life and economic development is being hampered by high levels of traffic congestion and reduced accessibility, but stands to benefit from a statewide program to improve accessibility in the Old Line State and could realize significant benefits from a proposal for an even more robust program to improve mobility.

TRIP’s “Keeping Maryland Mobile” report examines the mobility and efficiency of the state’s transportation system and improvements needed to enhance access.

TRAFFIC CONGESTION IN MARYLAND

High levels of traffic congestion on Maryland’s major urban roads and highways reduce the reliability and efficiency of personal and commercial travel and hamper the state’s ability to support economic development and quality of life.

  • Maryland’s major urban highways and roads ranked number one nationally in 2017 for the average amount of traffic carried daily per-lane-mile, and second nationally in average daily commute length from 2013 to 2017.

  • The following chart shows the number of hours lost annually per average driver in the state’s two largest urban areas and the per-driver cost of lost time and wasted fuel due to congestion in 2017.

  • In its 2017 state mobility report, the Maryland Department of Transportation State Highway Administration (MDOT SHA) estimates that congestion on the state’s highways, freeways and major arterial roads costs the public $3.4 billion annually in the value of lost time and wasted fuel.
  • A Center for Transportation Studies report found that, in 2017, of the approximately 1.9 million jobs accessible within a one-hour drive to residents of the Baltimore metro area, only 30 percent are accessible within a 30-minute drive. And, of the approximately 2.6 million jobs accessible within a one-hour drive to residents of the Washington, DC metro area, only 24 percent are accessible within a 30 minute drive.
  • The Center for Transportation Studies report also found that, in 2017, the number of jobs accessible within a 40 minute drive in the Baltimore and Washington, DC metro areas during peak commuting hours was reduced by 38 and 47 percent, respectively, as a result of traffic congestion.

MARLAND’S MOST CONGESTED ROADWAYS

In its 2017 annual mobility report, MDOT SHA ranked the state’s most congested sections of highways and most congested sections of arterial (non-freeway) roadways.  Traffic congestion on these routes significantly reduces the reliability of travel times in these corridors.

  • The following chart shows the most congested portions of Maryland highways during weekday AM and PM peak travel hours.

  • The following chart shows the most congested portions of Maryland arterial roadways during weekday AM and PM peak travel hours.

POPULATION, ECONOMIC AND TRAVEL TRENDS IN MARYLAND

The rate of population and economic growth in Maryland has resulted in increased demands on the state’s transportation system. 

  • Maryland’s population reached approximately six million residents in 2018, a 14 percent increase since 2000. Maryland’s population is expected to increase to approximately 6.9 million people by 2040 and the state is expected to add another 600,000 jobs by 2040.
  • From 2000 to 2017, Maryland’s gross domestic product (GDP), a measure of the state’s economic output, increased by 45 percent, when adjusted for inflation and U.S. GDP increased by 37 percent.
  • Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) in Maryland increased by 20 percent from 2000 to 2017 –from 50 billion VMT in 2000 to 60 billion VMT in 2017. The rate of vehicle travel growth in Maryland has accelerated since 2013, increasing by six percent between 2013 and 2017.
  • By 2040, vehicle travel on I-495 and I-270 is expected to increase by 10 percent and 15 percent respectively.
  • Travel on the InterCounty Connector, a 19-mile tolled highway from I-370 to US 1, which was opened in stages from 2011 to 2014, increased by 35 percent from 2014 to 2016, reaching a daily average of 50,900 vehicles.

FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION IN MARYLAND

Freight shipments in Maryland, which are primarily carried by trucks, are expected to increase significantly through 2040 due to population and economic growth, and changes in business, retail, and consumer models, which rely on a faster and more responsive supply chain.  The efficiency of freight movement in Maryland is threatened by traffic congestion, which reduces the reliability of goods movement to and from destinations in the state and through the state. 

  • Annually, $369 billion in goods are shipped to and from sites in Maryland, mostly by truck.  Seventy-seven percent are carried by trucks and another 16 percent are carried by courier services or multiple mode deliveries, which include trucking.
  • The value of freight shipped to and from sites in Maryland, in inflation-adjusted dollars, is expected to increase 110 percent by 2045.
  • The following chart shows the five highway locations in Maryland carrying the largest number of large commercial trucks daily, and the five highway locations where large commercial trucks make up the largest share of daily traffic.

 

  • The following chart details the highway segments in Maryland that provide the worst travel reliability for commercial trucks as a result of traffic congestion.

  • Highway accessibility was ranked the number one site selection factor in a 2017 survey of corporate executives by Area Development Magazine. Labor costs and the availability of skilled labor, which are both impacted by a site’s level of accessibility, were rated second and third, respectively.

PROGRESS IN RELIEVING TRAFFIC CONGESTION IN MARYLAND  

Using a combination of programs and projects, the MDOT SHA is addressing Maryland’s traffic congestion and reliability challenges. These efforts are aimed at improving efficiency and expanding the capacity of the state’s transportation system.

  • MDOT SHA congestion relief programs and projects to improve the efficiency and expand the capacity of the state’s major roadways were estimated in 2016 to save approximately $1.6 billion in reduced delays, fuel consumption, and emissions.
  • MDOT SHA congestion relief efforts include: an incident management program that in 2016 cleared more than 30,000 incidents and assisted approximately 42,000 stranded motorists; improved traffic signalization; the provision of approximately 6,700 park and ride spaces at 106 locations; the use of High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes on portions of I-270 and US 50; the addition of nine miles of new sidewalks, 88 miles of marked bike lanes and six miles of shared use bike lanes; the addition of four new virtual freight weigh stations; the improvement of eight at-grade rail crossings; and, improvements to ten major intersections and the widening of a portion of MD 355 from Center Drive to West Cedar Lane in Montgomery County.

PROPOSED IMPROVEMENTS TO ENHANCE ACCESSIBILITY IN MARYLAND  

Governor Larry Hogan has recommended a transportation plan designed to provide congestion relief, accommodate growth and improve economic development in Maryland. Using innovative design and funding methods, the goal of the plan is to improve the capacity, operations, and safety of Maryland’s transportation system.

  • The $17.8 billion multimodal congestion relief plan includes:
  • Widening of approximately 70 miles of Interstates in Maryland via funding provided through a public-private partnership, including I-495 from south of the American Legion Bridge to east of the Woodrow Wilson Bridge and I-270 from I-495 to I-70, including the east and west I-270 spurs.
  • A traffic relief plan for portions of the Baltimore Beltway from I-70 to MD 43.
  • An active traffic management program for I-95 from MD 32 to MD 100.
  • The expansion of express toll lanes on I-95 from MD 43 to MD 24.
  • The completion of the Purple Line from the Bethesda Metro Station to the New Carrollton Metro Station.
  • Improvements to the BaltimoreLink transit system, the METRO system, and the MARC system.
  • Statewide expansion of the smart traffic signal program.

FEDERAL TRANSPORTATION FUNDING IN MARYLAND

Investment in Maryland’s roads, highways, and bridges is funded by local, state and federal governments.   The current five-year federal surface transportation program includes modest funding increases and provides states with greater funding certainty, but falls far short of providing the level of funding needed to meet the nation’s highway and transit needs. The bill does not include a long-term and sustainable revenue source.

  • Most federal funds for highway and transit improvements in Maryland are provided by federal highway user fees, largely an 18.4 cents-per-gallon tax on gasoline and a 24.4 cents-per-gallon tax on diesel fuel. Because revenue into the federal Highway Trust Fund has been inadequate to support legislatively set funding levels since 2008, Congress has transferred approximately $53 billion in general funds and an additional $2 billion from a related trust fund into the federal Highway Trust Fund.

Sources of information for this report include the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the Maryland Department of Transportation State Highway Administration (MDOT SHA), the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Official (AASHTO), the American Road and Transportation Builders Association (ARTBA), the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), the U. S. Census Bureau, the Center for Transportation Studies, the Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).  All data used in the report are the most recent available. 

TRIP Reports: MICHIGAN TRANSPORTATION IMPROVEMENTS UNDERWAY DUE TO INCREASED FUNDING; ADDITIONAL INVESTMENT STILL NEEDED

TO IMPROVE CONDITIONS, RELIEVE CONGESTION AND REDUCE COSTS TO MOTORISTS OF DRIVING ON CONGESTED, DEFICIENT ROADS

While increased transportation funding provided by Michigan’s 2015 road funding package has allowed many projects to proceed throughout the state, additional investment is needed to complete numerous projects that would improve Michigan’s road and bridge conditions, relieve traffic congestion, and enhance traffic safety and efficiency. This isaccording to a new report from TRIP, a national transportation research nonprofit based in Washington, DC.

Passage of the 2015 road funding package will increase state funding for local roads and bridges, state roads and bridges, and transit from $2.2 billion in 2015 to nearly $3.7 billion in 2023. The additional transportation funding has allowed the state to move forward with numerous projects that otherwise may have remained unfunded, though many projects across the state will not move forward without additional transportation funding. The TRIP report includes a list of projects across the state that are either underway or will be underway or completed no later than 2023, and a list of projects that currently lack adequate funding to proceed.

Statewide, 24 percent of major roads are in poor condition and 20 percent are in mediocre condition. Driving on rough roads costs Michigan motorists $4.6 billion annually in the form of accelerated vehicle depreciation, additional repair costs, and increased fuel consumption and tire wear.

“The TRIP data confirms what we’ve been saying for some time: Michigan’s roads and bridges are crumbling because of decades of under investment,” said Michigan Department of Transportation Chief Operating Officer and Chief Engineer Tony Kratofil. “Ensuring safe and efficient travel is our top priority, and these findings demonstrate the challenges we face fulfilling our mission.”

Statewide, 11 percent (1,175 of 11,180) of bridges are structurally deficient, meaning there is significant deterioration to the major components of the bridge. Forty-three percent of Michigan’s bridges (4,815 of 11,180) were built in 1969 or earlier.  Bridges 50 years or older often require significant rehabilitation or replacement.

Michigan drivers are dealing with increasingly congested roadways, as population and vehicle-travel rates return to pre-recession levels. Drivers lose as many as 54 hours each year as a result of traffic congestion. Lost time and wasted fuel as a result of congestion cost Michigan drivers a total of $5.6 billion annually.

Improving safety features on Michigan’s roads and highways would likely result in a decrease in the number of traffic fatalities and serious crashes. A total of 4,905 people were killed in Michigan in traffic crashes from 2013 to 2017, an average of 981 fatalities per year. Traffic crashes in which roadway design was likely a contributing factor cost Michigan drivers $3.9 billion annually in the form of lost household and workplace productivity, insurance and other financial costs.

The efficiency and condition of Michigan’s transportation system, particularly its highways, is critical to the health of the state’s economy.  Annually, $1 trillion in goods are shipped to, from and within sites in Michigan, relying heavily on the state’s network of roads and bridges. Increasingly, companies are looking at the quality of a region’s transportation system when deciding where to re-locate or expand. Regions with congested or poorly maintained roads may see businesses relocate to areas with a smoother, more efficient and more modern transportation system.

“While the recent influx of funding has allowed Michigan to make strides in improving its transportation system, more work still needs to be done to provide the state’s residents, businesses and visitors with a smooth, safe and efficient transportation system,” said Will Wilkins, TRIP’s executive director. “Michigan will need to continue to make transportation investment a top priority.”

Modernizing Michigan’s Transportation System:
Progress and Challenges in Providing Safe, Efficient andWell-Maintained Roads, Highways and Bridges

Executive Summary

A decade after suffering a significant economic downturn, Michigan is recovering, with its population and economy growing and vehicle travel increasing in response to the growth.  But the state’s rate of recovery could be slowed if Michigan is not able to provide a modern, well-maintained transportation system. The pace of economic growth, which will be greatly impacted by the reliability and condition of the state’s transportation system, continues to have a significant impact on quality of life in the Great Lakes State.

An efficient, safe and well-maintained transportation system provides economic and social benefits by affording individuals access to employment, housing, healthcare, education, goods and services, recreation, entertainment, family, and social activities. It also provides businesses with access to suppliers, markets and employees, all critical to a business’ level of productivity and ability to expand. Reduced accessibility and mobility – as a result of traffic congestion, a lack of adequate capacity, or deteriorated roads, highways, bridges and transit facilities – diminishes a region’s quality of life by reducing economic productivity and limiting opportunities for economic, health or social transactions and activities.

With an economy based largely on agriculture, manufacturing, technology, natural resource extraction, and tourism, the quality of Michigan’s transportation system plays a vital role in the state’s economic growth and quality of life.

In late 2015, Michigan’s governor signed into law a transportation funding package that relies on a combination of increased user fees, registration fees and general funds. While this increased funding will allow the state and local governments to move forward with numerous projects to repair and improve portions of the state’s transportation system, the funding is not sufficient to fully address the significant deterioration of the system, or to allow the state to provide many of the transportation improvements needed to support economic growth.

Achieving the state’s goals for a modern, well-maintained and safe transportation system will require staying the course with Michigan’s current transportation program and increasing transportation investment.

THE COST TO MICHIGAN MOTORISTS OF DEFICIENT ROADS

Driving on Michigan’s transportation system costs the state’s motorists a total of $14.1 billion every year in the form of additional vehicle operating costs (VOC), congestion-related delays and traffic crashes.

  • Driving on rough roads costs Michigan motorists a total of $4.6 billion annually in extra vehicle operating costs. These costs include accelerated vehicle depreciation, additional repair costs, and increased fuel consumption and tire wear.
  • Based on research indicating that roadway design is likely a contributing factor in approximately one-third of serious and fatal traffic crashes, TRIP estimates that the economic costs of serious and fatal traffic crashes in Michigan, in which roadway design was likely a contributing factor, is $3.9 billion per year. These costs come in the form of lost household and workplace productivity, insurance and other financial costs.
  • Traffic congestion costs Michigan motorists a total of $5.6 billion each year in the form of lost time and wasted fuel.
  • The chart below details the average cost per driver in the state’s largest urban areas and statewide.

TRANSPORTATION FUNDING AND NEEDED TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS

Additional transportation funding provided by the state legislature in 2015 will allow MDOT to complete numerous needed projects throughout the state. While the additional dollars have been helpful, many needed projects still remain unfunded.

 In late 2015, Michigan’s governor signed into law a road funding package that relies on a combination of increased user fees, such as gas taxes and registration fees, and allocations from the General Fund.

  • As a result of the funding increase, state funding for local roads and bridges, state roads and bridges, and transit will increase from $2.2 billion in 2015 to almost $3.7 billion in 2023. The chart below details the amount (in millions) of state funding for local roads and bridges, state roads and bridges, and transit.

  • The 2015 transportation legislation provided an additional $484 million in transportation revenue in 2017, increasing to $649 million annually in 2021. The legislation also provided income-tax revenues for transportation starting in 2019.

  • The income-tax revenue provided by the 2015 legislation is not dedicated in the state’s Constitution — as road-user fees are – and the appropriation could be changed.After 2020, income-tax revenues are expected to continue at $600 million per year, and the fuel-tax rate will rise with the Consumer Price Index after 2022.
  • Additional transportation funding provided by the 2015 legislation will allow Michigan to move forward with numerous projects that otherwise may have remained unfunded. The list below details a sampling of projects in Michigan’s major urban areas and throughout the state that are either underway or will be underway or completed no later than 2023, partly due to increased revenue.

  • Despite additional transportation funding provided by the 2015 legislation, numerous needed transportation projects in Michigan remain unfunded. The list below details projects in Michigan’s major urban areas and throughout the state that currently lack adequate funding to proceed.

POPULATION, ECONOMIC AND TRAVEL TRENDS

Population and economic growth results in increased demands on major roads and highways, leading to increased wear and tear on a state’s transportation system. 

  • Michigan’s population is again growing and nearing pre-recession levels after beginning to fall in 2005 and dropping each year until 2011. The state’s population has increased each year from 2011 to 2018 and is currently at 10 million residents. Michigan has approximately 7.1 million licensed drivers.
  • After decreasing by 14 percent between 2000 and 2009, when adjusted for inflation, Michigan’s gross domestic product, a measure of the state’s economic output, increased by 21 percent from 2009 to 2017.
  • Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) in Michigan increased by seven percent from 2013 to 2017, to 101.8 billion vehicle miles traveled in 2017.

MICHIGAN ROAD CONDITIONS

The share of Michigan’s major roads with pavements in poor condition has increased due to a lack of adequate state and local funding, providing a rough ride and costing motorists in the form of additional vehicle operating costs. 

  • The Michigan Transportation Asset Management Council (TAMC) found in its Michigan’s 2017 Roads and Bridges Annual Report that 40 percent of federal-aid eligible roads and highways in Michigan have pavements in poor condition, an increase from 2006 when 25 percent were rated in poor condition.
  • The TAMC report found that under current funding the share of federal-aid eligible roads in the state in poor condition will decrease slightly by 2027 to 37 percent.
  • Based on 2017 pavement condition data from the Federal Highway Administration, the chart below details pavement conditions on major roads inthe state’s largest urban areas:

BRIDGE CONDITIONS IN MICHIGAN

One-in-nine locally and state-maintained bridges in Michigan show significant deterioration and are rated structurally deficient. This includes all bridges that are 20 feet or more in length. 

  • Statewide, eleven percent of Michigan’s bridges are structurally deficient. A bridge is structurally deficient if there is significant deterioration of the bridge deck, supports or other major components. Structurally deficient bridges are often posted for lower weight or closed to traffic, restricting or redirecting large vehicles, including commercial trucks and emergency services vehicles.
  • The TAMC report found that under current funding the share of Michigan bridges rated in poor condition (which is a rating similar to structurally deficient) will increase from 10 percent in 2017 to 14 percent in 2027.
  • Forty-three percent of Michigan’s bridges (4,815 out of 11,180) were built in 1969 or earlier. Bridges 50 years or older often require significant rehabilitation or replacement.
  • The Federal Highway Administration estimates that it would cost $607 million to replace or rehabilitate all structurally deficient bridges in Michigan.
  • The chart below details the number and share of structurally deficient bridges inthe state’s largest urban areas and statewide:

MICHIGAN TRAFFIC CONGESTION

Increasing levels of traffic congestion cause significant delays in Michigan, particularly in larger urban areas, choking commuting and commerce. Traffic congestion robs commuters of time and money and imposes increased costs on businesses, shippers and manufacturers, which are often passed along to the consumer.

  • The chart below details the number of hours lost to congestion annually for the average driver in Michigan’s largest urban areas. It also includes the cost of congestion per motorist, in the form of lost time and wasted fuel.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND FATALITY RATES IN MICHIGAN

Improving safety features on Michigan’s roads and highways would likely result in a decrease in the number of traffic fatalities and serious crashes.

  • A total of 4,905 people were killed in Michigan traffic crashes from 2013 to 2017, an average of 981 fatalities per year.
  • Michigan’s overall traffic fatality rate of 1.01 fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles of travel in 2017 was below the national average of 1.16.
  • The fatality rate on Michigan’s non-interstate rural roads in 2017 was nearly double that on all other roads in the state (1.55 fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles of travel vs. 0.83).
  • The following chart indicates the average number of people killed annually in vehicle crashes in Michigan’s major urban areas from 2014 to 2016.

  • Several factors are associated with vehicle crashes that result in fatalities, including driver behavior, vehicle characteristics and roadway features. TRIP estimates that roadway features are likely a contributing factor in approximately one-third of fatal traffic crashes.
  • Where appropriate, highway improvements can reduce traffic fatalities and crashes while improving traffic flow to help relieve congestion. Such improvements include removing or shielding obstacles; adding or improving medians; improved lighting; adding rumble strips, wider lanes, wider and paved shoulders; upgrading roads from two lanes to four lanes; and better road markings and traffic signals.

FEDERAL TRANSPORTATION FUNDING IN MICHIGAN

The current federal surface transportation program, which expires in 2020, falls far short of providing the level of funding needed to meet the nation’s highway and transit needs. Boosting federal surface transportation spending will require that Congress provide a long-term and sustainable source of funding to support the federal Highway Trust Fund.

  • Signed into law in December 2015, the Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act (FAST Act), provides modest increases in federal highway and transit spending, allows states greater long-term funding certainty and streamlines the federal project approval process.  But, the FAST Act does not provide adequate funding to meet the nation’s need for highway and transit improvements and does not include a long-term and sustainable funding source.

TRANSPORTATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN MICHIGAN

The efficiency of Michigan’s transportation system, particularly its highways, is critical to the state’s economy.  A key component in business efficiency and success is the level and ease of access to customers, markets, materials and workers.  The design, construction and maintenance of infrastructure in Michigan is a significant source of employment in the state.  

  • Annually, $1 trillion in goods are shipped to, from and within sites in Michigan, mostly by truck.
  • Seventy percent of the goods shipped annually to and from sites in Michigan are carried by trucks and another 15 percent are carried by courier services or multiple mode deliveries, which include trucking.
  • The design, construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure in Michigan supports 94,107 full-time jobs across all sectors of the state economy. These workers earn $4.1 billion annually.
  • Approximately 1.9 million full-time jobs in Michigan in key industries like tourism, retail sales, agriculture and manufacturing are dependent on the state’s transportation infrastructure network.
  • Increasingly, companies are looking at the quality of a region’s transportation system when deciding where to re-locate or expand. Regions with congested or poorly maintained roads may see businesses relocate to areas with a smoother, more efficient and more modern transportation system.
  • Increasingly, companies are looking at the quality of a region’s transportation system when deciding where to re-locate or expand. Regions with congested or poorly maintained roads may see businesses relocate to areas with a smoother, more efficient and more modern transportation system. Highway accessibility was ranked the number one site selection factor in a 2017 survey of corporate executives by Area Development Magazine.  Labor costs and the availability of skilled labor, which are both impacted by a site’s level of accessibility, were rated second and third, respectively.

Conclusion

As Michigan works to continue its economic recovery and build a thriving, growing and dynamic state, it will be critical that the state is able to address its most significant transportation issues by providing a well-maintained 21st century network of roads, highways, bridges and transit that can accommodate the mobility demands of a modern society.

Michigan will need to modernize its surface transportation system by improving the physical condition of its transportation network and enhancing the system’s ability to provide efficient, safe and reliable mobility for residents, visitors and businesses.  Making needed improvements to the state’s roads, highways, bridges and transit systems could provide a significant boost to the economy by creating jobs in the short term and stimulating long-term economic growth as a result of enhanced mobility and access.

While the funding increase provided in 2015 will be helpful, Michigan  still faces significant challenges in improving the condition of its  roads and bridges and numerous projects to improve the condition and expand the capacity of Michigan’s roads, highways, bridges and transit systems will not be able to proceed without a substantial boost in state or local transportation funding.  If Michigan is unable to complete needed transportation projects it will hamper the state’s ability to improve the condition and efficiency of its transportation system or enhance economic development opportunities and quality of life.

 

Sources of information for this report include the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT), the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Official (AASHTO), the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), the U. S. Census Bureau, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), the Michigan Transportation Asset Management Council (TAMC), the Texas Transportation Institute (TTI), the American Road & Transportation Builders Association (ARTBA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).  All data used in the report are the most recent available.  

INCREASED NORTH DAKOTA TRANSPORTATION INVESTMENT DUE LARGELY TO BOOST IN ENERGY-RELATED REVENUES HAS ALLOWED NUMEROUS PROJECTS TO PROCEED

INCREASED NORTH DAKOTA TRANSPORTATION INVESTMENT DUE LARGELY TO BOOST IN ENERGY-RELATED REVENUES HAS ALLOWED NUMEROUS PROJECTS TO PROCEED, BUT STATE STILL FACES $2.5 BILLION SHORTFALL IN PROJECTS NEEDED TO IMPROVE CONDITION OF AGING ROADS & BRIDGES, INCREASE SAFETY AND PROMOTE ECONOMIC GROWTH AS ENERGY-RELATED FUNDS DECREASE

 While increased transportation investment in North Dakota, largely as a result of the state’s energy boom, has allowed numerous projects to proceed, additional investment is still needed to improve road and bridge conditions, enhance safety and accommodate projected growth,according to a new report from TRIP, a national nonprofit transportation research group based in Washington, DC.

The TRIP report, Modernizing North Dakota’s Transportation System: Progress & Challenges in Providing Safe, Efficient and Well-Maintained Roads, Highways & Bridges,” finds that with the amount of energy-related revenues available for transportation decreasing, North Dakota faces a significant shortfall in funding for needed transportation projects. Energy-related revenue in North Dakota used for transportation increased from $216 million in 2012 to $619 million in 2017 before dropping to $194 million in 2018. The state faces a $2.5 billion shortfall from 2018 to 2023 in transportation funding needed to improve road, highway and bridge conditions, support economic development opportunities and improve roadway safety. The chart below details needed transportation projects throughout the state that lack funding to proceed.

Largely as a result of the state’s energy boom and subsequent decline, North Dakota experienced the nation’s greatest rate of economic and vehicle travel growth from 2000 to 2014, and the nation’s greatest rate of reduction in economic output and vehicle travel from 2014 to 2016. The state’s population increased by 18 percent from 2000 to 2017 and is expected to increase another 38 percent by 2040. North Dakota’s gross domestic product (GDP) increased 133 percent from 2000 to 2014, the highest rate in the nation during that time. However, the state’s GDP decreased seven percent from 2014 to 2016, the largest decline in the nation during that time. And while North Dakota experienced the largest increase in vehicle miles of travel (VMT) in the nation from 2000 to 2014 (46 percent), the state also experienced the largest decrease in VMT from 2014 to 2016 (seven percent). Energy extraction levels in North Dakota have begun rising again in 2018 following a modest downturn in 2016 and 2017, resulting in additional economic activity and vehicle travel in North Dakota, which will increase wear and tear on the state’s roads, highways, and bridges.

“North Dakota has made investments in recent years out of necessity because of the energy boom and paid for those investments with energy revenue,” said Arik Spencer, president & CEO of the Greater North Dakota Chamber (GNDC). “This report makes clear more needs to be done. These findings are consistent with the wishes of GNDC’s members, who consistently cite infrastructure as one of their greatest concerns and name it as a top priority for the next legislative session.”

Nearly two-thirds of North Dakota’s major urban roads are in poor or mediocre condition, with pavement conditions projected to decline in the future without additional funding. According to the TRIP report, 36 percent of North Dakota’s major locally and state-maintained urban roads and highways have pavements in poor condition and 28 percent are rated in mediocre condition. The average annual miles of roads resurfaced or reconstructed by the North Dakota Department of Transportation (NDDOT) will decrease by 24 percent from 2015-2018 to 2019-2022, largely due to reduced energy-related revenue. NDDOT estimates that the miles of state-maintained roads in poor condition will nearly double between 2018 and 2021, from 443 miles to 872 miles.

According to the TRIP report, 14 percent of North Dakota’s bridges are structurally deficient, meaning there is significant deterioration to the major components of the bridge.  The Federal Highway Administration estimates that it would cost $164 million to replace or rehabilitate all structurally deficient bridges in North Dakota.  The average number of bridges NDDOT is able to reconstruct or replace annually will decrease by 46 percent from 2015-2018 to 2019-2022, largely due to reduced energy-related revenue.

Traffic crashes in North Dakota claimed the lives of 643 people between 2013 and 2017. The state’s rural, non-Interstate roads are particularly deadly, with a traffic fatality rate that is more than four times higher than on all other roads in the state (1.79 fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles of travel vs. 0.42).

The efficiency and condition of North Dakota’s transportation system, particularly its highways, is critical to the health of the state’s economy.  Annually, $106 billion in goods are shipped to and from sites in North Dakota, relying heavily on the state’s network of roads and bridges.

“While the increase of energy-related revenues allowed North Dakota to make strides in improving its transportation system, declining energy-related transportation revenues will result in reduced road and bridge repairs, leading to worsening road, highway and bridge conditions in the state,” said Will Wilkins, TRIP’s executive director. “Ensuring that North Dakota’s transportation system contributes to a high quality of life in the state and supports North Dakota’s economic development goals will require increased transportation investment.”

Executive Summary

North Dakota’s roads, highways and bridges form vital transportation links for the state’s residents, visitors and businesses, providing daily access to homes, jobs, shopping, natural resources and recreation.  The condition, efficiency and funding of North Dakota’s transportation system are critical to quality of life and economic competitiveness in the Peace Garden State.

North Dakota has experienced a significant boom in energy extraction in its western counties that, since 2005, has resulted in a ten-fold increase in crude oil production, spurred by advancements in extraction technology and increases in fuel prices.  While the state’s energy boom has resulted in a tremendous increase in wear and tear on the state’s roadways, it has also provided a significant boost in transportation funding. The modest decrease in energy extraction in North Dakota in 2016 and 2017, as a result of reduced energy prices, has significantly reduced the amount of additional energy-related revenue in North Dakota available for transportation investment. And despite the surge and subsequent drop in energy-related transportation revenues, North Dakota continues to face a significant backlog in needed funding for transportation, largely as a result of a lack of an adequate, dedicated state funding source for road, highway and bridge repairs and improvements.

This report examines the condition, use, safety and funding of North Dakota’s roads, highways and bridges and the state’s future mobility needs.  Sources of information for this report include the North Dakota Department of Transportation (NDDOT), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), the U.S. Census Bureau, the Texas Transportation Institute (TTI), the American Road & Transportation Builders Association (ARTBA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).

TRANSPORTATION FUNDING AND NEEDED TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS

An increase in transportation investment in North Dakota, largely as a result of increased energy-related revenues, has allowed many needed road, highway and bridge projects to proceed.  With the amount of energy-related revenues available for transportation decreasing, North Dakota faces a significant shortfall in funding for needed transportation improvements. 

  • From 2012 to 2018, $3 billion in state energy-related revenues were spent on transportation improvements in North Dakota. Energy-related revenue in North Dakota used for transportation increased from $216 million in 2012 to $619 million in 2017 before dropping to $194 million in 2018.
  • The $3 billion in energy-related revenue used for transportation in North Dakota represents 63 percent of the $4.8 billion in state revenue provided to the North Dakota Department of Transportation (NDDOT), from 2012 to 2018.
  • North Dakota faces a $2.5 billion shortfall from 2018 to 2023 in transportation funding needed to improve road, highway and bridge conditions, support economic development opportunities, and improve roadway safety.
  • Largely as a result of increased energy-related revenues, NDDOT has been able to proceed with numerous projects to improve the condition, safety and reliability of its roads, highways and bridges.
  • The chart below details North Dakota transportation projects that have been completed, are underway or will be completed by 2021 because of increased state transportation funding, largely due to increased energy-related state revenue.
  • The chart below details needed transportation projects in the state that lack adequate funding to proceed.

POPULATION, ECONOMIC AND TRAVEL TRENDS

Largely as a result of the state’s energy boom and subsequent decline, North Dakota experienced the nation’s greatest rate of economic and vehicle travel growth from 2000 to 2014 and the nation’s greatest rate of reduction in economic output and vehicle travel from 2014 to 2016. 

  • North Dakota’s population reached approximately 755,000 residents in 2017, an 18 percent increase since 2000. North Dakota had 555,935 licensed drivers in 2016.
  • North Dakota’s population is expected to increase by 38 percent by 2040 to 1,045,000, an increase of 290,000 people.
  • From 2000 to 2014, North Dakota’s gross domestic product (GDP), a measure of the state’s economic output, increased by 133 percent, when adjusted for inflation, the highest rate in the nation during that time. From 2014 to 2016, North Dakota’s GDP decreased by seven percent, when adjusted for inflation, the greatest rate of decline in the nation during that time.
  • Crude oil production in North Dakota increased from 98 thousand barrels a day in 2005 to 1.17 million barrels per day in 2015 before declining to 1.03 and 1.06 million barrels per day in 2016 and 2017, respectively.
  • Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) in North Dakota increased by 46 percent from 2000 to 2014, the greatest rate of increase in the nation during that time. VMT in North Dakota decreased by seven percent between 2014 and 2016, the greatest decrease in the nation during that time.

NORTH DAKOTA ROAD CONDITIONS

A lack of adequate state and local funding has resulted in approximately one-third of major urban roads and highways in North Dakota having pavement surfaces in poor or mediocre condition, providing a rough ride and costing motorists in the form of additional vehicle operating costs. 

  • The pavement data in this report, which is for all arterial and collector roads and highways, is provided by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), based on data submitted annually by the North Dakota Department of Transportation (NDDOT) on the condition of major state and locally maintained roads and highways.
  • Thirty-six percent of North Dakota’s major locally and state-maintained urban roads and highways have pavements in poor condition and 28 percent are rated in mediocre condition.  Eleven percent of major urban roads are in fair condition and the remaining 25 percent are rated in good condition.
  • Eight percent of North Dakota’s major locally and state-maintained rural roads and highways have pavements in poor condition and 15 percent are rated in mediocre condition.  Thirteen percent of major rural roads are in fair condition and the remaining 64 percent are rated in good condition.
  • The average annual miles of roads resurfaced or reconstructed by the North Dakota Department of Transportation (NDDOT) will decrease by 24 percent from 2015-2018 to 2019-2022, largely due to reduced energy-related revenue.
  • NDDOT estimates that the miles of state-maintained roads in poor condition will nearly double between 2018 and 2021, from 443 miles to 872 miles.
  • TRIP estimates that additional vehicle operating costs borne by North Dakota motorists as a result of driving on deteriorated roads is $250 million annually, or $449 per driver

BRIDGE CONDITIONS IN NORTH DAKOTA

Approximately one-in-seven locally and state-maintained bridges in North Dakota show significant deterioration and are rated structurally deficient. This includes all bridges that are 20 feet or more in length. 

  • Fourteen percent of North Dakota’s bridges are structurally deficient. A bridge is structurally deficient if there is significant deterioration of the bridge deck, supports or other major components. Structurally deficient bridges are often posted for lower weight or closed to traffic, restricting or redirecting large vehicles, including commercial trucks and emergency services vehicles.
  • The average number of bridges that NDDOT is able to reconstruct or replace annually will decrease by 46 percent from 2015-2018 to 2019-2022, largely due to reduced energy-related revenue.
  • The Federal Highway Administration estimates that it would cost $164 million to replace or rehabilitate all structurally deficient bridges in North Dakota
  • Most bridges are designed to last 50 years before major overhaul or replacement, although many newer bridges are being designed to last 75 years or longer.In North Dakota, 46 percent of the state’s bridges (2,030 of 4,377) were built in 1969 or earlier.
  • A recent survey of states by the U.S. General Accountability Office(GAO) found that more than half of states surveyed (14 out of 24) reported that inadequate funding was a challenge to their ability to maintain bridges in a state of good repair.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND FATALITY RATES IN NORTH DAKOTA

Improving safety features on North Dakota’s roads and highways would likely result in a decrease in the number of traffic fatalities and serious crashes.

  • A total of 643 people were killed in North Dakota traffic crashes from 2013 to 2017, an average of 128 fatalities per year.
  • North Dakota’s overall traffic fatality rate in 2016 of 1.16 fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles of travel is below the national average of 1.18.
  • The fatality rate on North Dakota’s non-interstate rural roads in 2016 is more than four times higher than on all other roads in the state (1.79 fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles of travel vs. 0.42).
  • Several factors are associated with vehicle crashes that result in fatalities, including driver behavior, vehicle characteristics and roadway features. TRIP estimates that roadway features are likely a contributing factor in approximately one-third of fatal traffic crashes.
  • Where appropriate, highway improvements can reduce traffic fatalities and crashes while improving traffic flow to help relieve congestion. Such improvements include removing or shielding obstacles; adding or improving medians; the use of high-friction surfacing treatment to improve skid resistance; improved lighting; adding rumble strips, wider lanes, wider and paved shoulders; upgrading roads from two lanes to four lanes; improved road markings; improved signage and delineation at curves; and, improved intersection design.

FEDERAL TRANSPORTATION FUNDING IN NORTH DAKOTA

The current federal surface transportation program, which expires in 2020, falls far short of providing the level of funding needed to meet the nation’s highway and transit needs. Boosting federal surface transportation spending will require that Congress provide a long-term and sustainable source of funding to support the federal Highway Trust Fund. 

  • Signed into law in December 2015, the Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act (FAST Act), provides modest increases in federal highway and transit spending, allows states greater long-term funding certainty and streamlines the federal project approval process.  But, the FAST Act, which expires in 2020, does not provide adequate funding to meet the nation’s need for highway and transit improvements and does not include a long-term and sustainable funding source.
  • Crafting a long-term federal highway and transit program to replace the expiring FAST Act in 2020 would likely require Congress to identify a long-term, sustainable source of funding to support increased funding for the federal Highway Trust Fund, which currently has a balance of $44 billion, but which is expected to reach a negative balance by 2021.

TRANSPORTATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NORTH DAKOTA

The efficiency of North Dakota’s transportation system, particularly its highways, is critical to the state’s economy.  A key component in business efficiency and success is the level and ease of access to customers, markets, materials and workers.  The design, construction and maintenance of infrastructure in North Dakota are significant sources of employment in the state.  

  • Annually, $106 billion in goods are shipped to and from sites in North Dakota, mostly by truck.
  • Seventy-four percent of the goods shipped annually to and from sites in North Dakota are carried by trucks and another 11 percent are carried by courier services or multiple mode deliveries, which include trucking.
  • The design, construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure in North Dakota support 13,258 full-time jobs across all sectors of the state economy. These workers earn $667 million annually.
  • Approximately 215,200 full-time jobs in North Dakota in key industries like energy, tourism, retail sales, agriculture and manufacturing are completely dependent on the state’s transportation infrastructure network.
  • Increasingly, companies are looking at the quality of a region’s transportation system when deciding where to re-locate or expand. Regions with congested or poorly maintained roads may see businesses relocate to areas with a smoother, more efficient and more modern transportation system. Highway accessibility was ranked the number one site selection factor in a 2017 survey of corporate executives by Area Development Magazine.  Labor costs and the availability of skilled labor, which are both impacted by a site’s level of accessibility, were rated second and third, respectively.

Sources of information for this report include the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the North Dakota Department of Transportation (NDDOT), the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Official (AASHTO), the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), the U. S. Census Bureau, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), the General Accounting Office (GAO), the Texas Transportation Institute (TTI), the American Road & Transportation Builders Association (ARTBA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).  All data used in the report are the most recent available.  

TRIP Reports: OHIO MOTORISTS LOSE A TOTAL OF $12 BILLION PER YEAR ON ROADS THAT ARE ROUGH, CONGESTED & LACK SOME SAFETY FEATURES

OHIO MOTORISTS LOSE A TOTAL OF $12 BILLION PER YEAR ON ROADS THAT ARE ROUGH, CONGESTED & LACK SOME SAFETY FEATURES– AS MUCH AS $2,180 PER DRIVER. INCREASED INVESTMENT HAS ALLOWED SOME COLUMBUS TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS TO MOVE FORWARD, BUT MANY REMAIN STALLED DUE TO LACK OF FUNDING

Roads and bridges that are deteriorated, congested or lack some desirable safety features cost Ohio motorists a total of $12 billion statewide annually – as much a $2,180 per driver in some urban areas – due to higher vehicle operating costs, traffic crashes and congestion-related delays. Increased investment in transportation improvements at the local, state and federal levels could relieve traffic congestion, improve road, bridge and transit conditions, boost safety, and support long-term economic growth in Ohio, according to a new report released todayby TRIP, a Washington, DC based national transportation research organization.

The TRIP report, Modernizing Ohio’s Transportation System: Progress and Challenges in Providing Safe, Efficient and Well-Maintained Roads, Highways and Bridges,”finds that throughout Ohio, approximately one-third of major locally and state-maintained urban roads are in poor or mediocre condition, seven percent of locally and state-maintained bridges are structurally deficient, and increasing congestion is causing significant delays for commuters and businesses. TRIP’s report examines the impact of additional funds provided largely by the use of Ohio Turnpike bond proceeds, and documents the state’s significant short-term and long-term transportation funding shortfalls. It includes lists of needed transportation projects in the state’s largest urban areas that have adequate funding to proceed by 2023, and needed projects in each area that lack funding to proceed.

The TRIP report calculates the cost to motorists of insufficient roads in the Cincinnati, Cleveland-Akron, Columbus, Dayton and Toledo urban areas. These costs come in the form of extra vehicle operating costs (VOC) as a result of driving on roads in need of repair, lost time and fuel due to congestion-related delays, and the costs of traffic crashes in which roadway features likely were a contributing factor. A breakdown of the costs per motorist in the state’s largest urban areas along with a statewide total is below.

While the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) was able to invest $2 billion in the state’s transportation system in 2017 and $2.35 billion in 2018, investment is set to drop to $1.85 billion in 2019 and to $1.7 billion in 2021. ODOT estimates it will face a transportation funding shortfall of $14 billion through 2040. Additional investment has allowed the state to move forward with needed transportation projects, but many projects remain stalled due to a lack of available funding. The chart below details projects outside the state’s largest urban areas that have adequate funding to proceed by 2023, and projects that lack funding to proceed prior to 2023.

The TRIP report finds that 23 percent of Ohio’s major urban roads are in poor condition and 12 percent are in mediocre condition, costing the state’s drivers a total of $3.5 billion each year in extra vehicle operating costs, including accelerated vehicle depreciation, additional repair costs, and increased fuel consumption and tire wear.

“The serious and in some cases horrendous condition of transportation infrastructure warrants immediate discussion and attention at the local, state and federal levels of government,” said Hamilton County Engineer Ted Hubbard. “Our economy and future are directly tied to a transportation system of safe, dependable and efficient roads and bridges. The TRIP report clearly documents the existing condition of transportation infrastructure in Ohio and concisely illustrates the direct impact an efficient transportation system has on a healthy economy.”

Traffic congestion throughout Ohio is worsening, costing drivers in the state’s largest urban areas as much as $1,057 annually in lost time and wasted fuel. Drivers in the most congested areas lose 44 hours each year – more than five working days – stuck in traffic congestion.

Seven percent of Ohio’s bridges are structurally deficient, with significant deterioration to the bridge deck, supports or other major components.

“The TRIP report succinctly outlines current transportation infrastructure conditions and how transportation impacts economic development in Ohio,” said Brian O. Martin, AICP, executive director of the Miami Valley Regional Planning Commission. “Businesses look to relocate and grow in a region with a robust transportation system and our region continues to lag. Insufficient local and state resources require an immediate increase in federal funding to shore up the region’s deficient infrastructure so that we can compete. Our elected representatives in Washington, D.C. must address this issue sooner than later.”

Traffic crashes in Ohio claimed the lives of 5,360 people between 2012 and 2016- an average of 1,072 fatalities per year. The fatality rate on Ohio’s non-interstate rural roads in 2016 was approximately two-and-a-half times higher than on all other roads in the state (1.84 fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles of travel vs. 0.71).

The efficiency and condition of Ohio’s transportation system, particularly its highways, is critical to the health of the state’s economy.  Annually, $1.1 trillion in goods are shipped to and from sites in Ohio, relying heavily on the state’s network of roads and bridges. Increasingly, companies are looking at the quality of a region’s transportation system when deciding where to re-locate or expand. Regions with congested or poorly maintained roads may see businesses relocate to areas with a smoother, more efficient and more modern transportation system.

“These conditions are only going to get worse, increasing the additional costs to motorists, if greater investment is not made available at the state and local levels of government,” said Will Wilkins, TRIP’s executive director. “Without adequate funding, Ohio’s transportation system will become increasingly deteriorated and congested, hampering economic growth, safety and quality of life.”

Modernizing Ohio’s Transportation System

 

Executive Summary

Ohio’s roads, highways and bridges form vital transportation links for the state’s residents, visitors and businesses, providing daily access to homes, jobs, shopping, natural resources and recreation.  The condition, efficiency and funding of Ohio’s transportation system are critical to quality of life and economic competitiveness in the Buckeye State. Inadequate transportation investment, which will result in deteriorated transportation facilities and diminished access, will negatively affect economic competitiveness and quality of life.

Located within a day’s drive of 60 percent of the population of the United States and Canada, Ohio can capitalize on its central location by maintaining and modernizing its roads, highways and bridges by improving the physical condition of its transportation network; and, by enhancing the system’s ability to provide efficient, reliable and safe mobility for residents, visitors and businesses.  Ohio maintains one of the most extensive and heavily traveled transportation systems in the nation.  Ohio ranks second nationally among states in the number of bridges, third in the volume of freight carried on its transportation system, and sixth in both miles of Interstate highways and total vehicle miles traveled (VMT).  Making needed improvements to Ohio roads, highways, bridges and transit systems could also provide a significant boost to the state’s economy by creating jobs in the short term and stimulating long-term economic growth as a result of enhanced mobility and access.

This report examines the condition, use and safety of Ohio’s roads, highways and bridges and future mobility needs.  Sources of information for this report include the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), the U.S. Census Bureau, the Texas Transportation Institute (TTI), the American Road & Transportation Builders Association (ARTBA)and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).

DRIVING COSTS IN OHIO

Driving on Ohio’s transportation system costs the state’s motorists a total of $12 billion every year in the form of additional vehicle operating costs (VOC), congestion-related delays and traffic crashes.

  • Driving on rough roads costs Ohio motorists a total of $3.5 billion annually in extra vehicle operating costs (VOC). These costs include accelerated vehicle depreciation, additional repair costs, and increased fuel consumption and tire wear.
  • Based on research indicating that roadway design is likely a contributing factor in approximately one-third of serious and fatal traffic crashes, TRIP estimates that the economic costs of serious and fatal traffic crashes in Ohio, in which roadway design was likely a contributing factor, is $3.9 billion each year. These costs come in the form of lost household and workplace productivity, insurance and other financial costs.
  • Traffic congestion costs Ohio motorists a total of $4.6 billion each year in the form of lost time and wasted fuel.
  • The chart below details the average cost per driver in the state’s largest urban areas as well as statewide.

TRANSPORTATION FUNDING AND NEEDED TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS

Ohio has been able to boost its highway investments through the use of Ohio Turnpike bond proceeds, but state highway funding is slated to decrease significantly in 2019.  Ohio faces both a short-term shortfall in funding for projects to expand highway capacity and a long-term shortfall in funding to maintain the condition and level of service of its roads, highways, bridges and public transit systems. 

  • The Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) in its Access Ohio 2040report estimates that the cost of maintaining conditions and level of service on its system of roads, highways, bridges and public transit systems is approximately $55 billion through 2040. However, only $41 billion is anticipated to be available, leaving a shortfall of $14 billion (the highway only shortfall is estimated at $10.6 billion).
  • The Ohio Department of Transportation’s (ODOT) construction investment in roads, highways and bridges increased from approximately $2 billion in 2017 to $2.35 billion in 2018, largely due to Ohio Turnpike bond proceeds, but investment is set to decrease to $1.85 billion in 2019, dropping to $1.7 billion in 2021.
  • Starting in 2014, $1.38 billion in Ohio Turnpike bond proceeds have been made available to ODOT, which to date has committed $928 million to transportation projects.The remaining $452 million in Ohio Turnpike bond proceeds are available to ODOT to commit to transportation projects in fiscal years 2018 and 2019
  • In addition to the required $120 million that is provided annually to Metropolitan Planning Organizations and regional transit organizations, ODOT annually provides more than $300 million in discretionary funding to local governments for road, highway and bridge repairs.
  • The Transportation Review Advisory Council (TRAC) oversees the selection of major projects to be constructed by ODOT. TRAC’s draft 2018-2021 major new construction listincludes 45 highway and bridge projects in Ohio at a total cost of $8.3 billion, of which $2.5 billion in federal, state and local funding is anticipated to be available through 2023, leaving approximately $5.8 billion unfunded.
  • The charts below detail needed transportation projects in the state’s largest urban areas and statewide that have adequate state and local funding identified to proceed by 2023.

  • The charts below detail needed transportation projects in the state’s largest urban areas and statewide that lack adequate state and local funding to proceed to construction through 2023.

IMPACT OF INFLATION ON FEDERAL AND STATE MOTOR FUEL USER FEES

Inflation has reduced significantly the buying power of the federal and Ohio motor fuel user fees, which are critical funding sources for Ohio road, highway and bridge repairs and improvements.

  • The buying power of the federal 18.4 cents-per-gallon gasoline and 24.4 cents-per-gallon diesel motor fuel user fee, which was last increased in 1993, has had its buying power reduced to 10.7 and 14.2 cents-per-gallon, respectively, due to inflation.
  • The buying power of the Ohio 28 cents-per-gallon user fee, which was last increased in 2005, has had its buying power reduced to 18 cents-per-gallon due to the impact of inflation.

POPULATION, ECONOMIC AND TRAVEL TRENDS

Population and economic growth results in increased demands on major roads and highways, leading to increased wear and tear on a state’s transportation system. 

  • Ohio’s population reached approximately 11.6 million residents in 2016, a two percent increase since 2000. Ohio had eight million licensed drivers in 2016.
  • From 2000 to 2016, Ohio’s gross domestic product, a measure of the state’s economic output, increased by 14 percent, when adjusted for inflation, compared to the national average of 30 percent.
  • Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) in Ohio increased by 12 percent from 2000 to 2016 –from 105.9 billion VMT in 2000 to 118.6 billion VMT in 2016. The rate of vehicle travel growth in Ohio has accelerated since 2013, increasing five percent between 2013 and 2016. By 2040, vehicle travel in Ohio is projected to increase another 20 percent.

OHIO ROAD CONDITIONS

A lack of adequate state and local funding has resulted in approximately one-third of major urban roads and highways in Ohio having pavement surfaces in poor or mediocre condition, providing a rough ride and costing motorists in the form of additional vehicle operating costs. 

  • The pavement data in this report, which is for all arterial and collector roads and highways, is provided by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), based on data submitted annually by the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) on the condition of major state and locally maintained roads and highways.
  • Twenty-three percent of Ohio’s major locally and state-maintained urban roads and highways have pavements in poor condition and 12 percent are rated in mediocre condition.  Thirteen percent of major urban roads are in fair condition and the remaining 52 percent are rated in good condition.
  • The chart below details pavement conditions on major urban roads inthe state’s largest urban areas:

BRIDGE CONDITIONS IN OHIO

One-in-fourteen locally and state-maintained bridges in Ohio show significant deterioration and are rated structurally deficient. This includes all bridges that are 20 feet or more in length. 

  • Statewide, seven percent of Ohio’s bridges are structurally deficient. A bridge is structurally deficient if there is significant deterioration of the bridge deck, supports or other major components. Structurally deficient bridges are often posted for lower weight or closed to traffic, restricting or redirecting large vehicles, including commercial trucks and emergency services vehicles. 
  • Since 2013, ODOT has invested $140 million to repair and replace hundreds of deteriorating bridges owned by local governments through the Ohio Bridge Partnership Program.

OHIO TRAFFIC CONGESTION

Increasing levels of traffic congestion cause significant delays in Ohio, particularly in larger urban areas, choking commuting and commerce. Traffic congestion robs commuters of time and money and imposes increased costs on businesses, shippers and manufacturers, which are often passed along to the consumer.

  • The chart below details the number of hours lost to congestion annually for the average driver in Ohio’s largest urban areas. It also includes the cost of congestion per motorist, in the form of lost time and wasted fuel.

TRAFFIC SAFETY AND FATALITY RATES IN OHIO

Improving safety features on Ohio’s roads and highways would likely result in a decrease in the number of traffic fatalities and serious crashes.

  • A total of 5,360 people were killed in Ohio traffic crashes from 2012 to 2016, an average of 1,072 fatalities per year.
  • Ohio’s overall traffic fatality rate of 0.95 fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles of travel in 2016 was below the national average of 1.18.
  • The fatality rate on Ohio’s non-interstate rural roads in 2016 was approximately two-and-a-half times higher than on all other roads in the state (1.84 fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles of travel vs. 0.71).
  • Several factors are associated with vehicle crashes that result in fatalities, including driver behavior, vehicle characteristics and roadway features. TRIP estimates that roadway features are likely a contributing factor in approximately one-third of fatal traffic crashes.
  • Where appropriate, highway improvements can reduce traffic fatalities and crashes while improving traffic flow to help relieve congestion. Such improvements include removing or shielding obstacles; adding or improving medians; improved lighting; adding rumble strips, wider lanes, wider and paved shoulders; upgrading roads from two lanes to four lanes; and better road markings and traffic signals.

FEDERAL TRANSPORTATION FUNDING IN OHIO

The current federal surface transportation program, which expires in 2020, falls far short of providing the level of funding needed to meet the nation’s highway and transit needs. The Trump Administration has released a plan to increase investment in infrastructure, which includes surface transportation, by $1.5 trillion.  Boosting federal surface transportation spending will require that Congress provide a long-term and sustainable source of funding to support the federal Highway Trust Fund.

  • Signed into law in December 2015, the Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act (FAST Act), provides modest increases in federal highway and transit spending, allows states greater long-term funding certainty and streamlines the federal project approval process.  But, the FAST Act does not provide adequate funding to meet the nation’s need for highway and transit improvements and does not include a long-term and sustainable funding source.
  • President Trump released an infrastructure investment plan in February 2018 that would provide $200 billion in new federal grants and loans over 10 years to leverage $1.5 trillion in total project spending nationwide, relying on state and local governments to raise the additional $1.3 trillion.

TRANSPORTATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN OHIO

The efficiency of Ohio’s transportation system, particularly its highways, is critical to the state’s economy.  A key component in business efficiency and success is the level and ease of access to customers, markets, materials and workers.  The design, construction and maintenance of infrastructure in Ohio is a significant source of employment in the state.  

  • Annually, $1.1 trillion in goods are shipped to and from sites in Ohio, mostly by truck.
  • Seventy-eight percent of the goods shipped annually to and from sites in Ohio are carried by trucks and another 12 percent are carried by courier services or multiple mode deliveries, which include trucking.
  • The design, construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure in Ohio supports 132,374 full-time jobs across all sectors of the state economy. These workers earn $5.5 billion annually.
  • Approximately 2.4 million full-time jobs in Ohio in key industries like tourism, retail sales, agriculture and manufacturing are dependent on the state’s transportation infrastructure network.
  • Increasingly, companies are looking at the quality of a region’s transportation system when deciding where to re-locate or expand. Regions with congested or poorly maintained roads may see businesses relocate to areas with a smoother, more efficient and more modern transportation system.
  • Highwayaccessibility was ranked the number one site selection factor in a 2017 survey of corporate executives by Area Development Magazine. Labor costs and the availability of skilled labor, which are both impacted by a site’s level of accessibility, were rated second and third, respectively.
  • The Federal Highway Administrationestimates that each dollar spent on road, highway and bridge improvements results in an average benefit of $5.20 in the form of reduced vehicle maintenance costs, reduced delays, reduced fuel consumption, improved safety, reduced road and bridge maintenance costs and reduced emissions as a result of improved traffic flow. 

Sources of information for this report include the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT), the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Official (AASHTO), the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), the U. S. Census Bureau, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), the Texas Transportation Institute (TTI), the American Road & Transportation Builders Association (ARTBA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).  All data used in the report are the most recent available.  

 

 

TRIP Reports: Mississippi Motorists Lose $2.9 Billion Per Year On Roads That Are Rough, Congested & Lack Some Desirable Safety Features

Mississippi Motorists Lose $2.9 Billion Per Year On Roads That Are Rough, Congested & Lack Some Desirable Safety Features – As Much As $2,000 Per Driver. Costs Will Rise And Conditions Will Worsen Without Increased Funding

Roads and bridges that are deteriorated, congested or lack some desirable safety features cost Mississippi motorists a total of $2.9 billion statewide annually – as much as $2,046 per driver in some urban areas – due to higher vehicle operating costs, traffic crashes and congestion-related delays. Increased investment in transportation improvements at the local and state levels could relieve traffic congestion, improve road, bridge and transit conditions, boost safety, and support long-term economic growth in Mississippi, according to a new report released today by TRIP, a Washington, DC based national transportation organization.

The TRIP report, Mississippi Transportation by the Numbers: Meeting the State’s Need for Safe Smooth and Efficient Mobility,” finds that throughout Mississippi, nearly two-thirds of major locally and state-maintained urban roads are in poor or mediocre condition and 12 percent of Mississippi’s locally and state-maintained bridges are structurally deficient. The state’s major urban roads are becoming increasingly congested, with drivers wasting significant amounts of time and fuel each year. And, more than 3,100 people were killed on the state’s roads from 2011 to 2015. Mississippi had the third highest traffic fatality rate in the nation in 2015.

Driving on Jackson area roads costs Mississippi drivers a total of $2.9 billion per year in the form of extra vehicle operating costs (VOC) as a result of driving on roads in need of repair, lost time and fuel due to congestion-related delays, and the costs of traffic crashes in which the lack of adequate roadway safety features likely were a contributing factor. The TRIP report calculates the cost to motorists of insufficient roads in the Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula, Hattiesburg, Jackson and Southaven-DeSoto County urban areas. A breakdown of the costs per motorist in each area along with a statewide total is below.

The TRIP report finds that 43 percent of Mississippi’s major locally and state-maintained urban roads and highways have pavements in poor condition and 21 percent are rated in mediocre condition. Twelve percent of major urban roads are in fair condition and the remaining 24 percent are rated in good condition. Driving on deficient roads costs Mississippi motorists an additional $1.4 billion each year in extra vehicle operating costs, including accelerated vehicle depreciation, additional repair costs, and increased fuel consumption and tire wear.

“Municipalities in Mississippi are responsible for more than 23,000 street miles,” said Jimmy Clyde, mayor of Magee and president of the Mississippi Municipal League.  “As a mayor, I can confirm that one of most requested services from my citizens is better and safer streets. More than half of Mississippi citizens live in municipalities, and they expect and deserve safe, well-maintained streets. The cost of providing and maintaining streets and bridges continues to outpace current municipal revenue streams.  Raising property taxes should not be the only recoursefor generating new revenue. If cities and towns can improve their street infrastructure, the climate for economic development will continue to improve and more jobs can be created for all Mississippians.”

Increasing levels of traffic congestion cause significant delays in Mississippi, particularly in its larger urban areas, choking commuting and commerce. Traffic congestion costs Mississippi drivers $530 annually in the form of lost time and wasted fuel.

Twelve percent of Mississippi’s bridges are structurally deficient, with significant deterioration to the bridge deck, supports or other major components.

Traffic crashes in Mississippi claimed the lives of 3,109 people between 2011 and 2015, an average of 622 fatalities per year. Mississippi’s overall traffic fatality rate of 1.70 fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles of travel is significantly higher than the national average of 1.13 and the third highest rate in the nation. The state’s rural roads have a traffic fatality rate that is more than four times the fatality rate on all other roads in the state.

The efficiency and condition of Mississippi’s transportation system, particularly its highways, is critical to the health of the state’s economy. Annually, $277 billion in goods are shipped to and from sites in Mississippi, mostly by truck. Seventy-seven percent of the goods shipped annually to and from sites in Mississippi are carried by trucks and another eight percent are carried by courier services or multiple mode deliveries, which include trucking.

“The condition of Mississippi’s transportation system will worsen in the future without additional funding, leading to even higher costs for drivers,” said Will Wilkins, TRIP’s executive director. “In order to promote economic growth, foster quality of life and get drivers safety and efficiently to their destination, Mississippi will need to make transportation funding a top priority.”

Ten Key Transportation Numbers in Mississippi

 

$2.9 billion

Driving on deficient roads costs Mississippi motorists a total of $2.9 billion annually in the form of additional vehicle operating costs (VOC), congestion-related delays and traffic crashes.
Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula – $1,267

Hattiesburg – $1,293

Jackson – $2,046

Southaven-DeSoto County- $1,870

TRIP has calculated the cost to the average motorist in the state’s largest urban areas in the form of additional VOC, congestion-related delays and traffic crashes. Drivers in the state’s largest urban areas incur annual costs as a result of driving on deficient roads as follows: Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula – $1,267; Hattiesburg- $1,293; Jackson – $2,046, Southaven-DeSoto County- $1,870.
 

2 of 3 miles

Nearly two of every three miles of Mississippi’s major urban roads are in either poor or mediocre condition, with 43 percent rated in poor condition and 21 percent rated in mediocre condition.
Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula – 41%

Hattiesburg – 51%

Jackson – 63%

Southaven-DeSoto County-44%

The share of major urban roads in poor or mediocre condition in the state’s largest urban areas is as follows: Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula, 41 percent; Hattiesburg, 51 percent; Jackson, 63 percent; and Southaven-DeSoto County 44 percent.
 

4X

The fatality rate on Mississippi’s rural roads is more than four times the fatality rate on all other roads in the state (2.93 fatalities per 100 million VMT vs. 0.70).
12%

2,098 bridges

Twelve percent of Mississippi’s bridges (2,098 out of 17,068) are structurally deficient, the 12th highest rate in the nation. A bridge is structurally deficient if there is significant deterioration of the bridge deck, supports or other major components.
3rd Mississippi’s traffic fatality rate of 1.70 fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles of travel is the third highest in the nation.
Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula – 19 hours

Hattiesburg – 13 hours

Jackson – 38 hours

Southaven-DeSoto County-43 hours

Increasing congestion, particularly in the state’s urban areas, is causing significant delays for residents and businesses. The average Gulfport-Biloxi-Pascagoula driver loses 19 hours annually to congestion, Hattiesburg drivers lose 13 hours each year, Jackson drivers lose 38 hours, and Southaven-DeSoto County drivers lose 43 hours.
$1 = $4 to $5 Every $1 of deferred maintenance on roads and bridges has been found to cost an additional $4 to $5 in needed future repairs.
 

$1.00 = $5.20

The Federal Highway Administration estimates that each dollar spent on road, highway and bridge improvements results in an average benefit of $5.20 in the form of reduced vehicle maintenance costs, reduced delays, reduced fuel consumption, improved safety, reduced road and bridge maintenance costs, and reduced emissions as a result of improved traffic flow.

MISSISSIPPI TRANSPORTATION BY THE NUMBERS:

Meeting the State’s Need for Safe and Efficient Mobility
Executive Summary

Quality of life and economic progress are riding on Mississippi’s transportation system. The rate of economic growth in Mississippi, which is greatly impacted by the reliability and condition of the state’s transportation system, has a significant impact on quality of life in the Magnolia State.

An efficient, safe and well-maintained transportation system provides economic and social benefits by affording individuals access to employment, housing, healthcare, education, goods and services, recreation, entertainment, family, and social activities. It also provides businesses access to suppliers, markets and employees, all critical to a business’ level of productivity and ability to expand. Reduced accessibility and mobility – as a result of traffic congestion, a lack of adequate capacity, or deteriorated roads, highways, bridges and transit facilities – diminishes a region’s quality of life by reducing economic productivity and limiting opportunities for economic, health or social transactions and activities.

With an economy based largely on agriculture, tourism and manufacturing, the quality of Mississippi’s transportation system plays a vital role in the state’s economic growth and quality of life.

In this report, TRIP looks at the top transportation numbers in Mississippi as the state addresses modernizing and maintaining its system of roads, highways, bridges and transit.

COST TO MISSISSIPPI MOTORISTS OF DEFICIENT ROADS

An inadequate transportation system costs Mississippi motorists a total of $2.9 billion every year in the form of additional vehicle operating costs (VOC), congestion-related delays and traffic crashes.

  • Driving on rough roads costs Mississippi motorists a total of $1.4 billion annually in extra vehicle operating costs. Costs include accelerated vehicle depreciation, additional repair costs, and increased fuel consumption and tire wear.
  • Traffic crashes in which roadway design was likely a contributing factor cost Mississippi motorists a total of $1 billion each year in the form of lost household and workplace productivity, insurance and other financial costs.
  • Traffic congestion costs Mississippi motorists a total of $530 million each year in the form of lost time and wasted fuel.
  • The chart below details the average cost per driver in the state’s largest urban areas and statewide.

POPULATION, TRAVEL AND ECONOMIC TRENDS IN MISSISSIPPI

Population and economic growth result in increased demands on major roads and highways, leading to increased wear and tear on the transportation system.

  • Mississippi’s population reached approximately 3 million residents in 2016, a five percent increase since 2000. Mississippi had approximately 2 million licensed drivers in 2015.
  • Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) in Mississippi increased by 19 percent from 2000 to 2016 –from 35.5 billion VMT in 2000 to 42.3 billion VMT in 2016. VMT in the state increased nine percent just in the last three years (2013-2016).
  • From 2000 to 2015, Mississippi’s gross domestic product, a measure of the state’s economic output, increased by 14 percent, when adjusted for inflation. U.S. GDP increased 27 percent during this time.

MISSISSIPPI ROAD CONDITIONS

A lack of adequate state and local funding has resulted in nearly two of every three miles of major urban roads and highways in Mississippi having pavement surfaces in poor or mediocre condition, providing a rough ride and costing motorists in the form of additional vehicle operating costs.

  • The pavement data in this report, which is for all arterial and collector roads and highways, is provided by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), based on data submitted annually by the Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) on the condition of major state and locally maintained roads and highways.
  • Pavement data for Interstate highways and other principal arterials is collected for all system mileage, whereas pavement data for minor arterial and all collector roads and highways is based on sampling portions of roadways as prescribed by FHWA to insure that the data collected is adequate to provide an accurate assessment of pavement conditions on these roads and highways.
  • Overall, 28 percent of Mississippi’s major locally and state-maintained roads and highways have pavements in poor condition and 27 percent are in mediocre condition. Fifteen percent of the state’s major roads are rated in fair condition and the remaining 30 percent are rated in good condition.
  • Forty-three percent of Mississippi’s major locally and state-maintained urban roads and highways have pavements in poor condition and 21 percent are rated in mediocre condition. Twelve percent of major urban roads are in fair condition and the remaining 24 percent are rated in good condition.
  • Twenty-five percent of Mississippi’s major locally and state-maintained rural roads and highways have pavements in poor condition and 28 percent are rated in mediocre condition. Fifteen percent of major rural roads are in fair condition and the remaining 32 percent are rated in good condition.
  • The chart below details the share of pavement in poor, mediocre, fair and good condition in the state’s largest urban areas.

  • Roads rated in mediocre to poor condition may show signs of deterioration, including rutting, cracks and potholes. In some cases, these roads can be resurfaced, but often are too deteriorated and must be reconstructed.
  • Driving on rough roads costs Mississippi motorists a total of $1.4 billion annually in extra vehicle operating costs. Costs include accelerated vehicle depreciation, additional repair costs, and increased fuel consumption and tire wear.
  • Long-term repair costs increase significantly when road and bridge maintenance is deferred, as road and bridge deterioration accelerates later in the service life of a transportation facility and requires more costly repairs. A report on maintaining pavements found that every $1 of deferred maintenance on roads and bridges costs an additional $4 to $5 in needed future repairs.

MISSISSIPPI BRIDGE CONDITIONS

Twelve percent of locally and state-maintained bridges in Mississippi show significant deterioration. This includes all bridges that are 20 feet or more in length.

  • Twelve percent of Mississippi’s bridges (2,098 out of 17,068) are structurally deficient, the twelfth highest share in the nation. A bridge is structurally deficient if there is significant deterioration of the bridge deck, supports or other major components. Structurally deficient bridges are often posted for lower weight or closed to traffic, restricting or redirecting large vehicles, including commercial trucks and emergency services vehicles. 
  • The chart below details the share of structurally deficient bridges in the state’s largest urban areas.

HIGHWAY SAFETY AND FATALITY RATES IN MISSISSIPPI

Improving safety features on Mississippi’s roads and highways would likely result in a decrease in the state’s traffic fatalities and serious crashes. It is estimated that roadway features are likely a contributing factor in approximately one-third of all fatal and serious traffic crashes.

  • A total of 3,109 people were killed in Mississippi traffic crashes from 2011 to 2015, an average of 622 fatalities per year.
  • Mississippi’s overall traffic fatality rate of 1.70 fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles of travel in 2015 was significantly higher than the national average of 1.13 and the third highest rate in the nation.
  • The fatality rate on Mississippi’s non-interstate rural roads in 2015 was more than four times that on all other roads in the state (2.93 fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles of travel vs. 0.70).
  • The chart below details the average number of people killed in traffic crashes from 2013 to 2015 in the state’s largest urban areas, as well as the cost per motorist of traffic crashes.

  • Traffic crashes in Mississippi imposed a total of $3.1 billion in economic costs in 2015. TRIP estimates that traffic crashes in which roadway features were likely a contributing factor imposed $1 billion in economic costs in 2015.
  • According to a 2015 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) report, the economic costs of traffic crashes includes work and household productivity losses, property damage, medical costs, rehabilitation costs, legal and court costs, congestion costs and emergency services.
  • Roadway features that impact safety include the number of lanes, lane widths, lighting, lane markings, rumble strips, shoulders, guard rails, other shielding devices, median barriers and intersection design. The cost of serious crashes includes lost productivity, lost earnings, medical costs and emergency services.
  • Several factors are associated with vehicle crashes that result in fatalities, including driver behavior, vehicle characteristics and roadway features. TRIP estimates that roadway features are likely a contributing factor in approximately one-third of fatal traffic crashes.
  • Where appropriate, highway improvements can reduce traffic fatalities and crashes while improving traffic flow to help relieve congestion. Such improvements include removing or shielding obstacles; adding or improving medians; improved lighting; adding rumble strips, wider lanes, wider and paved shoulders; upgrading roads from two lanes to four lanes; and better road markings and traffic signals.
  • Investments in rural traffic safety have been found to result in significant reductions in serious traffic crashes. A 2012 report by the Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) found that improvements completed recently by the Texas Department of Transportation that widened lanes, improved shoulders and made other safety improvements on 1,159 miles of rural state roadways resulted in 133 fewer fatalities on these roads in the first three years after the improvements were completed (as compared to the three years prior).   TTI estimates that the improvements on these roads are likely to save 880 lives over 20 years.

MISSISSIPPI TRAFFIC CONGESTION

Increasing levels of traffic congestion cause significant delays in Mississippi, particularly in its larger urban areas, choking commuting and commerce. Traffic congestion robs commuters of time and money and imposes increased costs on businesses, shippers and manufacturers, which are often passed along to the consumer.

  • Based on Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) estimates, the value of lost time and wasted fuel in Mississippi is approximately $530 million per year.
  • The chart below details the number of hours lost to congestion by the average driver in the state’s largest urban areas, as well as the annual cost of traffic congestion per driver in the form of lost time and wasted fuel.

  • Increasing levels of congestion add significant costs to consumers, transportation companies, manufacturers, distributors and wholesalers and can reduce the attractiveness of a location to a company when considering expansion or where to locate a new facility. Congestion costs can also increase overall operating costs for trucking and shipping companies, leading to revenue losses, lower pay for drivers and employees, and higher consumer costs.

TRANSPORTATION FUNDING IN MISSISSIPPI

Investment in Mississippi’s roads, highways and bridges is funded by local, state and federal governments. The current five-year federal surface transportation program includes modest funding increases and provides states with greater funding certainty, but falls far short of providing the level of funding needed to meet the nation’s highway and transit needs. The bill does not include a long-term and sustainable revenue source.

  • According to the 2015 Status of the Nation’s Highways, Bridges and Transit: Conditions and Performance report submitted by the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) to Congress, the nation faces an $836 billion backlog in needed repairs and improvements to the nation’s roads, highways and bridges.
  • The USDOT report found that the nation’s current $105 billion investment in roads, highways and bridges by all levels of government should be increased by 35 percent to $142.5 billion annually to improve the conditions of roads, highways and bridges, relieve traffic congestion and improve traffic safety.

TRANSPORTATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN MISSISSIPPI

The efficiency of Mississippi’s transportation system, particularly its highways, is critical to the health of the state’s economy. Businesses rely on an efficient and dependable transportation system to move products and services. A key component in business efficiency and success is the level and ease of access to customers, markets, materials and workers.

  • Annually, $277 billion in goods are shipped to and from sites in Mississippi, mostly by truck.
  • Seventy-seven percent of the goods shipped annually to and from sites in Mississippi are carried by trucks and another eight percent are carried by courier services or multiple mode deliveries, which include trucking.
  • Increasingly, companies are looking at the quality of a region’s transportation system when deciding where to re-locate or expand. Regions with congested or poorly maintained roads may see businesses relocate to areas with a smoother, more efficient and more modern transportation system.
  • Highway accessibility was ranked the number two site selection factor behind only the availability of skilled labor in a 2015 survey of corporate executives by Area Development Magazine.
  • The Federal Highway Administration estimates that each dollar spent on road, highway and bridge improvements results in an average benefit of $5.20 in the form of reduced vehicle maintenance costs, reduced delays, reduced fuel consumption, improved safety, reduced road and bridge maintenance costs and reduced emissions as a result of improved traffic flow.

Sources of information for this report include the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), the U.S. Census Bureau, the Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).